The challenge presented to the architects was to accommodate, within twin residence halls designed by McKim Mead & White and originally constructed in 1905, a new concept in Columbia’s undergraduate living facilities. Specifically, the program was to provide for groups ranging in size from 10 to 15 students, each group with some special field of interest, comprising, in effect, small “houses” within the house system. The project, which was planned for 470 students, was essentially a complete gut reconstruction of these two National Historic Register buildings. The structures, in a state of disrepair, were restored externally. Previously underused attic spaces were opened up to natural light by the installation of skylights and are now used for student lounge and activities spaces.